To compare with the human cortical bone, the biomimetic properties of nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 composite (n-HA/PA66) were preliminarily studied qualitatively and quantitatively with TEM, XRD in crystal morphology, phase composition and crystal structure. A series of structure parameters such as cell lattice parameters (a and c), mean crystallite size and micro-strain were calculated to characterize quantitatively the microstructure of n-HA/PA66 and human cortical bone at the atomic level. The results show that n-HA/PA66 is a good biomimetic biomaterial. But there still are some differences between n-HA/PA66 and human cortical bone. Compared to human cortical bone, the crystal microstructure of n-HA/PA66 is denser, the crystal lattice of n-HA is more perfect and the distortion of crystal lattice decreases.