Steels continue to have a preponderant role in mechanical components under all type of wear solicitations namely, abrasion. The ability of micro-scale abrasion test for evaluating the properties of bulk materials has been widely demonstrated. However, only recently this technique was especially developed to characterize thin-coated materials. This study presents results obtained in micro-scale abrasion tests performed on different low and high alloy steels. These steel samples underwent thermal and chemical (nitriding) treatments with the aim of enhancing their surface hardness. Nitriding parameters were varied so as to obtain different structures (with and without formation of a “white layer” of iron nitrides (ε-Fe2-3N or γ’-Fe4N compound layer). Test conditions such as normal load and concentration of the abrasive medium (SiC particles in distilled water) were changed in order to obtain a 2 or 3 body wear contact type. Results obtained allowed to compare the specific wear rate ks for the different steels and treatments tested as well as to relate the influence of surface hardness and test parameters on the wear mechanisms.