Gradient-dependent plasticity where a characteristic length is involved to consider the microstructural effect (interactions and interplaying among microstructures due to the heterogeneous texture) is introduced into Zerilli-Armstrong model based on the framework of thermally activated dislocation motion. Effect of initial temperature on the distributions of plastic shear strain and deformation in adiabatic shear band (ASB), the axial compressive stress-axial compressive strain curve, the shear stress-average plastic shear strain in ASB curve and the plastic shear strain corresponding to the occurrence of shear strain localization is investigated. The axial deformation within aluminum-lithium alloy specimen in uniaxial compression in strain-hardening stage is considered to be uniform. Beyond the peak compressive stress, a single ASB with a certain thickness determined by internal length is formed and intersects the specimen. The axial plastic deformation is decomposed into uniform deformation and localized deformation due to the shear slip along ASB. Lower temperature leads to earlier occurrence of shear strain localization, i.e., lower critical plastic compressive strain, steeper post-peak shear stress-average plastic shear strain in ASB curve, higher peak shear stress and more apparent shear strain localization. The calculated distributions of plastic shear strain and deformation in ASB are highly nonuniform due to the microstructural effect, as cannot be predicted by classical elastoplastic theory applicable to completely homogenous material. The predicted average plastic shear strains in ASB for different widths of ASB agree with the measured values for under-aged Al-Li alloy at 298K and at strain rate of approximately 103s-1.