X-ray tomography allows the microstruture of aluminum alloys to be imaged non destructively in three dimensions (3D). This paper shows different examples of the use of this technique for the quantification of damage in model and industrial Al based materials. The model materials are used to setup the technique. The spherical shape of their inclusions makes it easy to compare the measurements with the prediction of standard model for damage. The industrial materials are characterized during in situ tensile but also ex situ bulging and plane strain tension tests. The respective contribution of initiation and growth of damage is measured separately and discussed. The 3D data are also used to quantify the anisotropy of the effect of damage.