In this work, the effect of steel grade on the fatigue resistance of deep-rolled crankshafts is analysed. In the first part of this paper, the mechanisms leading to the increase of the fatigue resistance brought by the deep rolling treatment, is presented. This reinforcement is mainly linked to crack arrest due both to a decrease of the in-depth stress concentration factor and to remaining compressive residual stresses induced by the deep rolling. In a second part, an analytical model of residual stresses generation by deep-rolling and fatigue is presented. In this model the low cyclic fatigue behaviour of the steel is taken into account, and the residual stress stability with bending fatigue cycling can be predicted. After a presentation of the experimental validation on two different microstructures (baintic and ferrito- perlitic), this model is used for analysing the main parameters of the deep-rolling process and fatigue resistance.