Vacuum carburization of nanometer tungsten powder was investigated in a simple designed apparatus. An X-Y recorder was used to plot differential thermal analysis (DTA) curves to determine the starting temperature of carburization of four samples with different specific surface area. The product was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The results show that finer tungsten powder has lower starting temperature of carburization. Tungsten powder, the BET surface area of which is 32.97m2/g, was completely carburized to tungsten carbide at 1050°C, even though the starting temperature was 890°C. The particle was found to grow sharply before carburization.