There are two obstacles to be overcome in the CSP production of HSLA heavy gauge strip and skelp, especially for API Pipe applications. First, the microalloying should be conserved by eliminating the high temperature precipitation of complex particles. Second, the heterogeneous microstructure that normally results from the 800 micron initial austenite in the 50mm slab as it is rolled to 12.5mm skelp must be eliminated to optimize the final microstructure and improve the final mechanical properties. Alteration in the hot rolling sequence can strongly homogenize the final austenite and resulting final ferritic microstructure. When coupled with a low coiling temperature near 550°C, the new rolling practice can result in Nb HSLA steels that can easily meet requirements for strength, toughness and ultrasonic testing in 12.5mm skelp gauges for X70 API pipe applications. The underlying physical metallurgy of these two breakthroughs will be presented and discussed in detail.