Investigation into the effect of carbon and nitrogen contents of steels with an addition of chromium, nickel and manganese on their structure and properties after thermoplastic treatment has been carried out within the present study. For the physical modeling of thermoplastic treatment processes, a DIL 805A/D dilatometer with a deformation capability and a Gleeble 3800 simulator were used. The effect of carbon and nitrogen contents and the sum of these elements (C+N) on the hardening of the material during hot plastic working. The softening of the material depends on the C/N element ratio. The influence of the constituents under analysis on the dynamics of removal of cold work effects is different; C speeds up, while N slows down this process. The influence of the sum of the elements C and N depends on the type of nonmetallic phase precipitates. The structure and properties of such steels are determined by quenching and tempering cycles.