According to accommodate-state and big bulk 18-8 type austenitic stainless steel has the weakness of coarse-grained and low strength. Optical microscopy，electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to analyze microstructure and grain size of austenitic stainless steel specimens after deformation heat treatment. The paper investigates the influence of recrystallization annealing on the ultra-fine structure of cold deformation austenitic stainless steel. The results show that austenitic stainless steel can produce deformation-induced martensite by cold rolling deformation， and that the content of martensite increases with deformation degree. During the annealing, ultra-fine grains can be obtained by the reversal transformation-induced martensite(M′→ γ ). After severe cold deformation, inside austenitic grains imported austenitic-martensite(γ /M) phase boundaries shall serve to add a great deal of forming nucleus location for recrystallization, to enhance forming nucleus ratio and refine grain. 1Cr18Ni9Ti austenitic stainless steel by severe cold deformation and recrystallization annealing can acquire ultra-fine grains.