Modeling and simulation of recrystallization, grain growth, and related phenomena are important tools for the fundamental understanding of microstructural evolution and prediction of engineering properties. In particular for ultra fine grained and nanocrystalline materials proper account of microstructural evolution is essential for the optimal processing of these materials. It is shown that for modeling of softening phenomena it is important to discriminate between discontinuous primary recrystallization and discontinuous grain growth owing to their quite different underlying physics. Recent developments in recrystallization modeling and simulation of grain growth are addressed, in particular nucleation of recrystallization and junction effects in grain growth. Major progress is also expected from atomistic modeling and quantum-mechanical computations for making available specific material properties.