PM 1000 is a nickel-based oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) superalloy used for high-temperature applications. The primary recrystallization of a <100>-fiber textured coarsegrained oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-based superalloy (PM 1000) has been investigated. The annealing behavior of this alloy is quite complex. Even when annealing is performed at high homologous temperatures (e.g. 0.9 Tm, Tm is the melting point), recrystallization is partial. In order to understand such a behavior, the microstructure of specimens in both the as-received, deformed, and annealed conditions has been imaged in detail using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). In the annealed state we observe a significant volume fraction of tiny crystals in the interior of the recovered grains. These tiny grains are elongated and grow mostly along the existing low angle dislocation boundaries (anisotropic growth). In the present paper we propose a twinningassisted nucleation mechanism to clarify their origin during recrystallization.