Nanoporous gold was fabricated by dealloying and their pore characteristics were further modified by thermal or acid treatment. The fabricated nanoporous gold had a ligament size of approximately 5 nm. Thermal treatment on the nanoporous gold increased the ligament size to approximately 500 nm. During the thermal treatment, ligaments are bonded across the cracks which had been generated during the dealloying. Acid treatment also increased the ligament size to approximately 500 nm; however, the acid treatment had a different effect on the pore characteristics from the thermal treatment. As a result, nanoporous gold prism microassembly with anisotropic structure was spontaneously fabricated by the acid treatment. The mechanical properties of nanoporous gold were also examined. It is estimated that the yield strength of nanosized ligaments in nanoporous gold is very high and close to the ideal strength of gold.