A sliding wear test was conducted in a copper single crystal having (001) surface. Microstructures induced by the sliding wear were investigated by means of the electron channelling contrast (ECC) imaging and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis. The microstructures below the worn surface consisted of the stack of dislocation cell structure, layered structure and equiaxed fine-grained structure. At the dislocation cell structure, there was no significant change in crystallographic orientation. On the other hand, the crystal at the layered structure rotated continuously around the axis which was perpendicular to sliding wear direction. In the fine-grained structure, preferential orientations no longer existed. The authors attempted to explain grain boundary formation in terms of a rotation angle gradient which is proportional to density of geometrically-necessary dislocations.