A lining process for carbon steel using shot peening was investigated. In the shot peening experiment, the dissimilar foil set on the carbon steel substrate is pelted with many shots at a high velocity. The foil is bonded to the surface of the substrate due to plastic deformation induced by the collision of the shots. In the experiment, an air-type shot peening machine with an electrical heater was employed. The substrates are commercially carbon steel S45C, and the foils are commercially pure aluminum, pure copper, and pure nickel. The effects of shot conditions and the heating temperature on the joinability were examined. To improve surface characteristics such as wear resistance and corrosion resistance, the surface alloying of the lined workpiece was also attempted. The metal foils were successfully joined to the surface of the substrate. It was found that surface properties of carbon steel could be improved by the shot lining process.