Hydrostatic extrusion (HE) as a method of metals forming is known for about 100 years. Recently, it has been utilized as an efficient way of grain size refinement down to nanometer scale. In the case of engineering metals, HE processing alters not only grain size but also second phase particles such as intermetallic inclusions and precipitates. During HE processing, these particles significantly change their size, shape and spatial distribution. These changes are accompanied by improvement in properties of processed metals such as fatigue and fracture toughness. In the present work, changes of second phase particles induced by HE are described in a quantitative way for aluminium alloys. Their impact on mechanical properties is also discussed.