The interaction of cells with polymers is important for their potential applications in medicine and various areas of biotechnology. Their physico-chemical surface properties strongly influence the cell morphology, adhesion and growth. Physical and chemical properties of pristine and modified polyethylene (PE) films were studied. PE was modified by Ar plasma (0–400 s, 2.0 W) and than grafted with amino acid (glycine). Structural and morphological changes of polymer were studied by goniometry and Rutherford back-scattering (RBS). The interaction of these samples with vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) from the rat aorta was studied. Number and morphology of the adhered and proliferated cell on the pristine and modified PE was studied in vitro method. It was found that wetting angle of the modified films decreased with exposure time. Experiments in vitro indicated that the adhesion and proliferation of VSMC is increasing function of degradation time and glycine grafting.