For the investigation of retained strains during hot forming, which are related to the dislocation structure, single and double hit compression tests were carried out at different temperatures and strain rates for a stainless steel. Using microhardness measurements the retained strains after the first and second pass were investigated as a function of the amount of deformation, temperatures as well as strain rates and dwell durations. In general, the retained strain decreases with increasing dwell durations in both the deformed and recrystallized grains, respectively. At a given total amount of deformation in a double hit compression, the retained strains for the as deformed unrecrystallized grains are reduced for a lower deformation in the first hit. For the recrystallized grains the retained strain increases, when comparing double hit with single hit compression.