The internal stress in solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) was evaluated during the thermal, reduction and re-oxidation cycles by using high-energy X-ray synchrotron radiation of about 70 keV at Beam line BL02B1 of SPring-8. The oxidized cell has a compression of about 400 MPa in the c-ScSZ electrolyte and a tension of 50-100 MPa in the NiO-YSZ anode at room temperature. In-situ measurement during the thermal cycle in an air atmosphere, the internal stress decreased with increasing temperature, becoming approximately zero at 1000 K. After the thermal cycle, the internal stress returned to its initial value. In the measurement during the reduction cycle, the internal stress was smaller than that measured during the cooling cycle after the anode was reduced from NiO-YSZ to Ni-YSZ. In the re-oxidation cycle of a reduced cell, the internal stress in the electrolyte went into tension above 800 K when the anode was re-oxidized from Ni-YSZ to NiO-YSZ. This tensile stress is responsible for possible fracture of unit cells in SOFCs.