In this paper, existing models of fabric’s optical behaviors are classified and estimated briefly. Then, basing on the optical theories, this paper abstracts the commonness of fabric’s optical behaviors and put forward an improved model of them, which includes a physical model and its corresponding mathematical model. The physical model describes the light falling on fabrics splits into six components, which compose another four components. The ten light components divided by the incident light yields ten light component parameters, which are functions of the wavelength. The mathematical model connects the ten light component parameters and gives formulas to calculate them. Thus, the light component parameters are connected with the basic optical parameters and structural parameters of fabric. This improved model provides a fundamental and theoretical guide for studying fabric’s optical properties systematically, which has been proved to be effective in solving some problems related fabric optical properties.