In both Oil & Gas (OG) and automotive industries, welding is an essential part of fabrication routes and the challenges in welding metallic materials are frequently similar. Processes that are fast, robust, and therefore tolerate variations in process parameters (including operators for manual processes) and materials (i.e. compositions and properties) are important to reproduce high weld quality and facilitate non-destructive examinations (NDE). New grades of high-strength alloys, required to be weldable by common processes and preferably without post-weld heat treatments, are not only needed by both industries, but dissimilar-metal welding is also becoming unavoidable, thereby demanding for novel processes with either low heat inputs or high-energy densities. In this paper, technologies for dissimilar-metal welding are examined in reference with both OG and automotive applications.