Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology exhibits significant performance advantages over conventional bulk silicon technology in both electronics and optoelectronics. In this chapter we present an overview of recent applications on light emission from SOI materials. Particularly, in our work we used SOI technology to fabricate light emitting diodes (LEDs), which emit around 1130 nm wavelength with an external quantum efficiency of 1.4 × 10−4 at room temperature (corresponding to an internal quantum efficiency close to 1 %). This is almost two orders of magnitude higher than reported earlier for SOI LEDs. This large improvement is due to three carrier confinement mechanisms: geometrical effects, quantum-size effects, and electric field effects. Our lateral p+/p/n+ structure is powered through two very thin silicon slabs adjacent to the p+/p and n+/p junction. Such use of thin silicon films aims to reduce the p+ and n+ contact area and to confine the injected carriers in the central lowly doped p-region. With this approach, we realized an efficient compact infrared light source with high potential switching speed for on-chip integration applications.