The isothermal and cyclic oxidation behaviors of a Ni-based superalloy with singlecrystalline (SC), polycrystalline and nanocrystalline (NC) structures were studied at 1000°C. Results indicated that a uniform oxides scale consisted of external Cr2O3 with little TiO2 and internal continuous Al2O3 formed on SC alloy. A non-uniform external oxide of which some locations were nodule-like scale was formed on surface of cast alloy. The nodule-like parts consisted of TiO2, Cr2O3 and serious internal oxidation of Al, and rest flat surface was a Cr2O3 and Al2O3 layer. A continuous Al2O3 layer formed on the sputtered NC coating. The micro-structure influenced the oxidation mechanism and resulted in different oxide scale formed on three materials, which greatly influenced materials’ oxidation and cyclic-oxidation resistance.