X-ray scattering techniques have been a very useful tool for the non-destructive analysis of the wood structure. X-rays are sensitive to structural parameters such as the composite structure of wood cell walls, the crystal structure of cellulose microfibrils and their helical arrangement in the cell wall, which is usually described by the microfibril angle (MFA). With the availability of synchrotron radiation sources novel experiments on wood have become possible. The increased flux of X-rays makes the in situ and time-resolved investigation of structural changes upon mechanical stress possible. The low-divergence synchrotron radiation X-rays can be focused down to sub-micrometer size, enabling scanning studies of the wood nanostructure with (sub-)microscopic position resolution. This chapter highlights very recent advances in the understanding of wood micro- and nanostructure, which were only possible using synchrotron radiation. Examples include the MFA determination in the individual layers of the secondary cell wall, the imaging of the helical structure of the cellulose microfibrils in the cell wall, lattice strain as induced by applied mechanical stress and the structural changes of different wood types under external tensile stress.