To improve the spatial resolution of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), a system to produce an intense positron microbeam was developed in AIST. A slow positron beam, which was produced by an electron linear accelerator, was focused by a lens onto a remoderator to enhance its brightness. The brightness-enhanced beam with an intensity of ≈1 × 106 e+/s was extracted from the remoderator and focused onto the sample by a lens. The beam size at the sample was 25 μm, which is more than two and half orders of magnitude smaller than that in the magnetic transport system (≈10 mm). Hence, the spatial resolution of PAS with an AIST positron microbeam can be drastically improved relative to PAS using conventional methods.