Chitosan membranes were prepared by solvent cast method. In order to increase cell adhesion of the chitosan membranes, oxygen plasma treatment was applied to improve the hydrophilicity of the surface of chitosan membranes. The surface properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle analyzer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effects of exposure time, plasma generating power, and chamber pressure on water contact angle of the chitosan membranes were investigated. The water contact angle of chitosan membranes decreased from 94.1° to 49.2° after plasma treatment. Which suggested the surfaces became more hydrophilic. XPS analysis showed that the oxygen content and the ratio of O/C increased markedly after oxygen plasma treatment. Furthermore, it was found that C-H bonds were broken with oxygen plasma treatment. C-OH group had been increased after plasma irradiation.