Nano-structured metals have attracted growing research interest, which has brought about the development of methods for their fabrication. A number of fabrication methods involve severe plastic deformation, SPD, and involve refinement of the coarse-grained structures to grain sizes on a nanometre scale. Such grain refinement is accompanied by a significant improvement in mechanical strength. The improved properties of the nano-structured metals open up perspectives for their application in innovative industries such as aerospace, surface transport and biomedical implant manufacturing. The advantage of using nano-structured light metals is possible weight reduction of manufactured components. In the case of automotive parts, this may contribute to a reduction in CO2 emissions – one of the most important global challenges – due to the significantly higher strength of nano-structured metals and alloys compared to their microcrystalline counterparts. Nano-structured metals also exhibit high strain rate superplasticity at relatively low temperatures. This offers fast processing of materials, whose superplastic forming would be restricted otherwise. Finally, nano-structured metals also possess improved functional properties such as wear and corrosion resistance, which can broaden the range of applications of engineering metals and alloys even further. This paper reviews recent progress in the development of light nano-engineered metals and alloys. In particular, interest is concentrated on the metals and alloys processed by SPD methods. Conclusions are drawn with regard to future development of light materials for application in transport.