The barium aluminum silicate-silicon nitride (BAS-Si3N4) matrix-ceramic composite was fabricated using pressureless sintering, at temperatures ranging from 1720°C, which is below the melting point of BAS, to 1850°C. The effect of processing conditions on sinterability, crystalline structure, microstructure and mechanical properties was evaluated. It was demonstrated the BAS glass-ceramic served as an effective liquid-phase-sintering aid, to attain high densities and completed the α-Si3N4–β-Si3N4 phase transformation, and remained as a structural matrix that was reinforced by the rod-like β-Si3N4 grains. Si3N4 grains nucleated and grow in random directions in an almost completely crystallized matrix of hexacelsian BAS. High flexural strength (665±40 MPa) and fracture toughness (7.74 MPa•m1/2) could be obtained from 30wt%BAS-70wt%Si3N4 samples that have been sintered at 1800°C for 120 min with a fine-grained microstructure.