The surface quality of components has the important influence on the components’ operational performance, characteristic of the geometry topography and statistical Characteristic is the important aspect of the surface quality. This study takes the arithmetic mean deviation of the assessed profile (Ra) to reflect the altitude characteristic of the surface profile, takes the mean width of the profile elements (Sm) to reflect the width characteristic of the surface profile, takes the material ratio of the profile (tp) to reflect the shape characteristic of the surface profile and takes the altitude density function φ(z) and autocorrelation function R(l) to reflect the statistical characteristic. Four groups of experiments are carried out in which 1Cr18Ni9Ti is taken as the material object of the test piece and test pieces with different initial surface roughness are polished. By experiment, the changing rules of the value of Ra, Sm, tp, φ(z) and R(l) after different polishing time are obtained. By analyzing the changing rules of Ra, Sm, tp, φ(z) and R(l), the influence of the Electrochemical Polishing (ECP) process on the surface geometry and statistical characteristic is obtained.