With the improvement of the load and speed of belt conveyor, the dynamic characteristic problem of belt conveyer appears especially outstanding. This paper analyzed the force situation of the conveyer by the discrete dynamics model, divided n viscoelastic properties mass units in advance, then built system analysis dynamics model by vibration mechanics, built modal neutral file of the flexible belt block by means of finite element analysis software, and built the virtual prototype model of the belt conveyor using ADMAS program. It analyzed the effect of stiffness and damping of belt on the starting process by dynamic characteristics simulation method. The simulation results showed that the speed wave period of belt with the smaller stiffness was longer and the peak was bigger, the belt speed easily occurred stronger surge, the transverse vibration of belt conveyor became more violent. With the increasing of stiffness, the belt speed wave peak value decreased. As the same time, the speed surge also decreased when other operation parameters of the belt conveyer system are fixed, with increasing of the damping, the dynamic tension force peak became smaller gradually, it led to decrease of vibration curve peak. Damping coefficient played the important role in decreasing the vibration intensity, the research result offers a new basis for the analysis and study of the dynamic characteristics of belt conveyor.