The fine-grained rolling steels NFG600 and the conventional usual rolling steels SM490 were processed by sand paper polishing and mechanical grinding to compare the residual stress generated after processing. The average grain size of NFG600 and SM490 is 3 μm and 15μm respectively. Therefore improvement of mechanical properties for such fine-grained steels is expected, it is important to understand the residual stress state of new fine-grained materials with processing. In this study, multi axial stresses of two kinds of specimens after polishing and grinding were measured by three kinds of analysis methods including cos-ψ method. As a result, as for σ33, the stress of NFG was compression, though that of SM490 was tension.