This paper describes residual stress measurements and analysis of austenitic stainless steel pipe with a butt-welded joint. The measurements were done with neutron diffraction and strain gauge techniques. The measured results had typical characteristics of butt-welded pipe regarding both the decline of stress along the axial direction and the bending distribution of axial stress along the radial direction. The measured residual stress distribution by neutron diffraction was shifted more to the tensile side than that by the finite element method simulation. However, the measured radial and axial strains, except for the hoop strain determined by neutron diffraction, coincided well with analysis strains. The hoop strain was actually equivalent strain converted by a correction method because a different lattice plane had to be used to measure hoop strain. This might be one reason why the difference occurred. Therefore, future study of the correction method would be desirable.