A motorcycle transmission gear of chromium-molybdenum steel with 0.2%C was carburized in carrier gas. Carburizing process including heating, carburizing, diffusing and quenching was simulated using elastoplastic finite element method. The carbon content, hardness, residual strain and residual stress fields of gear were analyzed. The unstressed lattice plane spacing and residual strains of the interior near the internal spline of gear were experimentally measured by synchrotron x-ray and neutron diffraction methods. As a result, the analyzed carbon content and hardness gradients of gear accorded with the experimental results. The radial, hoop and axial directions of cylindrical gear were found to be not always principal axes of residual stress field. On the other hand, the analyzed residual strains in the radial, hoop and axial directions of gear slightly discorded with the experimental results. Although correlation between the measured three strains was similar to that of the weighted average of analyzed strains, residual strain and stress fields of motorcycle transmission gear could not be accurately predicted at the present finite element analysis. It was concluded that carbon diffusion phenomenon and resultant hardening could be analyzed by the finite element method, and the actual interior residual strain and stress fields should be nondestructively measured by neutron diffraction method.