Material of the specimen was austenitic stainless steel (SUS316L). The specimens were given tensile plastic strains from 0% to 55%. The Vickers hardness of the specimen corresponded to the plastic strain. The residual macrostress was measured by Mn-Kα radiations. The residual macrostress of the annealed specimen had a small compression and changed into a tension after ten- sile plastic deformation. The specimen with 1% plastic strain showed the maximum tensile residual stress. To examine the dependency of the residual stress on the lattice plane, the residual microstress for each lattice plane was measured by hard synchrotron X-rays. The residual microstress was related with Young’s modulus which was calculated by Kro¨ ner model. A new method, 2θ-cos2 χ method, was proposed to solve the problem of coarse grains and it was excellent in comparison with the sin2 ψ method.