Nanostructured implant materials are considered as promising future biomaterials. Specifically, titanium based nanomaterial is the mostly used implant materials in orthopedic, dental and vascular surgeries. Due to the advantage of nanoscale features, treatment with nano porous and nano bump surface features have shown enhanced biocompatibilities, such as adhesion, proliferation and differentiation for bone and vascular cells. In addition, nanotoxicity issue with immune cells (macrophages) is currently paramount interest for determining subsequent tissue cellular response on implanted biomaterials. In this review, we demonstrated altered cellular interaction of bone, vascular cells on nanostructured titanium based alloys/materials through systematic controlling of nanoscale surface features, such as porosity and nanobumps. All this knowledge will be beneficial for both understanding and designing nanostructured biomaterials for increasing biocompatibility, thus, all these endeavors will lead increment of functionality of biomaterials and will eventually prolong the life time of implanted biomaterials.