Calcium phosphate ceramics such as hydroxy apatite (HA), β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and bicalcium phosphate (BCP) have been used as a bone graft biomaterial because of their good biocompatibility and similarity of chemical composition to natural bones. To increase the mechanical and osteoconductive properties, the granules and spongy type porous bone graft substitutes were prepared by fibrous monolithic process and polyurethane foam replica methods, respectively. The pore sizes obtained using these approaches ranged between 100-600 µm. The cytotoxicity, cellular proliferation, differentiation and ECM deposition on the bone graft substitutes were observed by SEM and confocal microscopy. Moreover, the scaffolds were implanted in the rabbit femur. New bone formation and biodegradation of bone graft were observed through follow-up X-ray, micro-CT analysis and histological findings. After several months (2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months) of implantation, new bone formation and ingrowths were observed in defect sites of the animal by CaP ceramics and 2 to 3 times higher bone ingrowths were confirmed than that of the normal trabecular bones in terms of total bone volume (BV).