Upon investigation of the damaged wheels it was determined that the cracking was caused by thermal fatigue during on-tread friction braking. The thermal cracks appear as short cracks oriented axially on the wheel tread. Severe heating of the wheel tread during braking was believed to be a contributing the variation of residual stress which is related to wheel failure. It is necessary to evaluate the residual stress due to deterioration of wheel tread in order to ensure the safety of wheel. In the present paper, the residual stress of railway wheel for deterioration using x-ray diffraction system is evaluated. The result shows that the residual stress of wheel is depend on the running distance and the residual stress needs to be inspected between the wheel diameter of 800 and 780mm.