Wheels of the railway vehicle play the important role for driving train through wheel-rail interaction. Especially wheel profile is one of the most important design factors to rule the running stability and safety of train. Accordingly, the control of rolling contact fatigue-related defects is an ongoing concern for both safety and cost reasons. This process is referred to as ratcheting. Wear of wheel and rail surfaces occur due to a mixture of adhesive, abrasive and corrosive processes. In wheel/rail systems with little wear, such failure is manifested by the appearance of closely spaced micro-cracks. In the present paper, a evaluation of surface defects of wheel and rail for Korean high-speed railway. The main research application is the wheel-rail maintenance of Korea high-speed train.