The tribological properties of polyimide (PI) composites reinforced with graphite or MoS2 sliding in liquid alkali and water as well as dry friction were investigated using a ring-on-ring tester. The results show that the friction coefficient (μ) and wear rate (W) for both graphite/PI and MoS2/PI composites in different liquid mediums are μdry>μwater >μalkali and Wwater>Wdry >Walkali. Results also indicate that the friction coefficient and wear rate of the PI composites filled with different solid lubricants are μMoS2 >μgraphite and W MoS2 >Wgraphite in different liquid mediums. In addition, the hydrophobic inorganic fillers are fit for the reinforcement of polymer-based composites sliding in liquid mediums. It is also concluded from the authors’ work that the wear rate and friction coefficient of polymer-based (such as PI, PTFE) composites in the alkali lubricated conditions is lowest among all the friction conditions. This may be attributed to the ionic hydration in the alkaline solution.