This paper presents our concepts and initial investigation of a novel construction automation approach using a new layered fabrication process called Contour Crafting (CC). The process aims at automated construction of whole houses as well as sub-components. The potential of CC became evident from the initial investigations and experiments with various materials and geometries. Using this process, a single house or a colony of houses, each with possibly a different design, may be automatically constructed in a single run. CC uses computer control to take advantage of the superior surface forming capability of trowels to create large intricate structures with smooth and accurate surfaces.