Cu-Mo-Si alloys with different Cu contents were prepared by self-propagation high-temperature synthesis (SHS). The microstructure and the worn surface morphology were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) together with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. Phase composition was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The wear behavior of the Cu-Mo-Si alloys was characterized by pin-on-disc wear tester. The results showed that most of Si atoms dissolved in Cu matrix or resulted in formation of compound with Cu, while only small amount of Si atoms reacted with Mo atoms to form Mo5Si3 particles in the Cu-Ni-Si alloys with 80% Cu content. The wear rate of Cu-Mo-Si alloys descended with a decrease of Cu content, and the predominant wear mechanism could be identified as abrasive wear for Cu content less than 90% and plastic deformation for Cu content higher than 90%.