One way to develop a new composite material or to improve its performance is to reinforce the matrix with a stronger dispersive phase. In principal, nanodiamonds can be used as reinforcement of composites owing to high surface energy, which allows an effective structure interaction with most utilized matrices. In this work, polycrystalline metallic–based composites and polymeric-based composites were investigated for the effect caused by addition of nanodiamonds. These composites were obtained at high compression pressures and combine with temperatures for certain short processing times. It was found that even small additions of nanodiamonds increase the wear resistance of the investigated composites.