The low energy high current pulse electron beam (LEHCPEB) irradiation induces ultra fast dynamic temperature fields in the surface of the material to which is associated dynamic stress fields that causes intense deformation at the material surface and sub-surface. Improved surface properties (hardness, corrosion resistance) can be obtained using the LEHCPEB treatment. Under the “Melting” mode, the top surface (few µm) which is melted and rapidly solidified (107 K/s), can solidify has nano-domains formed from the highly under-cooled melt. The thermal stress wave that propagates in the sub-surface imposes strain hardening and grain size refinement. This induces a sub-surface hardening that can extent over about 100 µm. The use of the “Heating” mode is less conventional. This mode can promote grain size refinement, hardening as well as texture modification without modification of the sample geometry.