The composite filament structure was produced in Cu-5.7%Cr as-cast alloy ingots, subjected to equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) and cold rolling (CR) at room temperature. Microstructure, tensile properties and electrical conductivity before and after the severe plastic deformation (SPD) processing have been investigated here. The results point out that the rotation and spreading of Cr particles took place during ECAP and the additional rolling resulting in long thin in situ filaments. The average grain size of a Cu phase is equal to about 200 nm after eight ECAP passes. The formation of finer equiaxed grains of the Cu phase has been revealed after the additional CR. The tensile strength 403 MPa and 507 MPa have been achieved after one and eight ECAP passes respectively and increased up to 517 MPa and 607 MPa after the subsequent CR deformation. The enhancement of the tensile strength and the deterioration of the electrical conductivity have been explained by the microstructure evolution of Cu matrix and the dendritic Cr phase.