In the present research, the microstructural features of ultrafine grained Cu-30 Zn alloy via ARB at room temperature were investigated by X-ray diffraction peak profile analysis. The character of dislocations was determined by analyzing the dislocation contrast factors. The average contrast factors for the different reflections obtained by determination of the type of dislocations and Burgers vectors in crystals. Also, using the modified Williamson–Hall and Warren–Averbach procedure size parameters, the effective outer cut-off radius and density of dislocations were determined. Assuming that the grain size distribution is log-normal, the median and the variance of the size distribution of sub grains were obtained. It was found that the crystallite size is reduced substantially, while the dislocation density increases up to 2 cycles of ARB. After 2nd cycle, dislocation density decreases. This is attributed to the occurrence of dynamic restoration process which takes place during next ARB cycles.