In the paper the concept of structure refinement due to mechanical twinning is discussed. It is postulated that the process of structure refinement may occur when dominant crystal shear proceeds across twin-matrix interface (Mode 2). Contrary, if the crystal shear proceeds parallel to the interface (Mode 1) no condition for structure refinement is satisfied. The conditions of the structure refinement and no structure refinement are shown taking example of tensile Cu-8%at. Al single crystals of two orientations [1 4 5] and [1 1 2] tested in liquid nitrogen. The tensile characteristics are therefore divided into stages associated with the Mode 1 and Mode 2, which correspond to the fact whether refinement of single crystal structure is present or not, as it is proved by the EBSD analysis. The performed analysis showed that structure refinement consists of formation of regions of new orientations, where the most common feature is the II order twinning (the case [1 4 5]) supported by other regions of specific orientations necessary to accommodate mainly the transfer of crystal twin shear across the twin-matrix interface. Moreover, if the II order twinning plays the dominating function (the case [1 1 2]) higher order twins are to bring into operation to assure further ductility of a deformed sample.