Rice straw/Poly(butylene succinate)(PBS) composites were prepared by injection molding machine. The influence of content and particle size of rice straw on the mechanical properties of composites indicated that with the increase of rice straw content the tensile strength and fracture strain of the composites was decreased. With the same content of rice straw, the smaller particle size, the more obvious decreased. The influence of dosage of silane coupling agent(SCA) on the composites was studied, the result indicated that with the increase of SCA content, the interface of composite materials significantly improved, the Young’s modulus increased 362% after rice straw was treated by SCA. Thermal analysis showed that the adding of coupling agent didn’t undermine the thermodynamic stability of the composites.