Petroleum coke desulfuration residue, from combustion desulfuration of high sulfur petroleum coke, presents drying powdery and a favorable cementing performance. Lime and gypsum are replaced by petroleum coke desulfuration residue to produce aerated concrete in this research. The experimental results indicate that products made of high-sulfur petroleum coke desulfuration residue satisfy the requirements in national code of autoclaved aerated concrete  (GB11968-2006) and has better performance than traditional lime aerated concrete products. Consequently, the application of high-sulfur petroleum coke desulfuration residue in aerated concrete broadens the resourcelized utilization of petroleum coke desulfuration residue, and solves the scarcity of building materials resources. It ought to have expansive application prospect because of remarkable economic, social, and environmental benefits.