Basing on the kinetic modeling, the role of microstructure peculiarities in formation of a revealed experimentally high-strength state of the nanostructured Al 6061 (Mg 0.8…1.2, Si 0.4…0.8, Cu 0.15…0.40, Cr 0.15…0.35, Mn 0.15, Fe 0.7, Zn 0.25, Ti 0.15 wt. %) alloy was analyzed, Possible strengthening mechanisms of the alloy subjected to high pressure torsion at room temperature have been considered. It has been shown that the grain size and segregation of Si, Cu and Mg atoms from the solid solution in the grain boundaries area are the main factors that enhance the alloy strength. Conclusions on the deformation mechanisms acting in the considered alloy have been made. They can be helpful for predicting the mechanical properties of materials. Quantitative estimation of the dislocation density, the stress of dislocation strengthening, and the stress of dislocation pinning by Mg atoms has been made.