To examine the effects of morphologies of one-dimentional metal oxides on their surface properties, two typical morphologies of manganese dioxide (one is nanorod, the other is nanofiber) as a model of metal oxide were prepared with hydrothermal approach under similar conditions. The adsorption properties of Pb2+ in aqueous solution were carried out by using surface active group of MnO2 with different morphologies. The results indicated that the sorption capacities for Pb2+ were dramaticly increased via tailoring the morphology of MnO2. The products were characterized with SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), XRD (X-ray Diffraction), FTIR (Fourier-Transform Infrared), atomic absorption spectrophotometer, and so on. These results illustrated that it was feasible to improve the removal efficiency of heavy metal ions dramatically in aqueous solution by tailoring the morphology of nanostructured MnO2.