By the measurement of creep curves and microstructure observation, an investigation has been made into the creep behaviors and microstructure evolution of a single crystal nickel-based superalloy containing 4.2%Re. Results show that the superalloy displays an obvious sensibility on the applied temperatures and stresses in the range of the applied temperatures and stresses. During the initial creep, the cubical g¢ phase in the alloy is transformed into an N-type rafted structure along the direction vertical to the applied stress axis. After crept up to fracture, the rafted g¢ phase in the region near fracture is transformed into a twisted configuration. The dislocation climbing over the rafted g¢ phase is considered to be the main deformation mechanism of the alloy during the steady creep state, and dislocations shear into the rafted g¢ phase is the main deformation mechanism of the alloy in the later stage of creep.